Coal, Biomass & Solid Fuels

Coal, Biomass & Solid Fuels

WAL has decades of experience analyzing a variety of solid fuels for physical properties, content and combustion value. We have equipment on-site to process coal, coke, petcoke, biomass, biochar, compressed pellets and cogeneration/alternative fuels such as garbage, TDF (Tire-Derived Fuel), ASR (Auto Salvage Residue), and RDF (Refuse-Derived Fuel).
Typical analyses are:

  • Proximate Analysis –Moisture, Ash, Volatile Matter and Fixed Carbon1_coal plant
  • Ultimate Analysis – Moisture, Ash, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur and Oxygen
  • Heating Value – Calorific value in Btu/lb
  • Full Prox – includes Proximate, Sulfur and Heating Value
  • Short Prox – includes Moisture, Ash, Sulfur and Heating Value
  • Prox-Ult-Btu – includes Proximate, Ultimate and Heating Value

Other analyses available include, but are not limited to:

  • Any of the above components individually1_biomass
  • Elemental Ash Analysis by XRF
  • Chlorine and/or Bromine by XRF
  • Bulk Density
  • Fluorine
  • Mercury by Direct Combustion
  • EqM – Equilibrium Moisture
  • FSI – Free Swelling Index
  • Forms of Sulfur
  • HGI – Hardgrove Grindability Index
  • Mineral Carbon – Carbonate C and inorganic C
  • Specific Gravity
  • Water or Acid Soluble Alkalies
  • A wide range of elements by ICP-OES or ICP-MS

Analytical methods
For a more detailed list, contact us.


Proximate Analysis of Coal – Moisture, Ash, Volatile Matter & Fixed Carbon (by difference) D7582
Ultimate Analysis of Coal – Moisture, Ash, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, & Oxygen (by difference) D7582, D5373, D4239
EqM – Equilibrium Moisture D1412
FSI – Free Swelling Index D720
Forms of Sulfur (pyritic, sulfate, organic, total) D2492
Heating Value of Coal (calorific value, Btu/lb – includes % sulfur) D5865, D4239
HGI – Hardgrove Grindability Index D409
Moisture, Total in Coal D3302
Mercury in Coal by Direct Combustion D6722

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